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Study shows older, poorer people at greater risk from adverse drug reactions

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A review by academics at Swansea University has found that older, poorer people who are socially distanced from their doctors or pharmacists, suffer more adverse drug reactions than the general population and that systematic monitoring is needed to protect these patients suffering from reactions which could result in over-sedation, falls, or drug-induced Parkinsonism.

The paper, published in the Geriatrics journal, acknowledges that despite modern efforts to move towards “patient-centred medicine”, doctors tend to treat their patients at a distance. The emphasis on prescribing treatment for patients while having limited contact with them, is especially true in relation the treatment of older patients in long-term care facilities. The problem is amplified by the overall lack of regular systematic reviews of the patient meaning opportunities are being missed to identify medication errors and undetected adverse drug reactions.

(Photo by Matthias Zomer on Pexels.com)

Professor David Hughes, who led the paper said: “It is very unfortunate that the combination of social distance between doctors and older and often poorer patients, and treatment centring on drugs prescribed without regular patient contact and checks, increases the risks of medication mistakes and adverse drug reactions. I am also very concerned that is a much more common scenario during the pandemic, given that patients in care homes are more likely to be living in lockdown, often without direct contact with their doctors.”

The study recommends the use of the Adverse Drug Reaction Profile as a solution. The Adverse Drug Reaction Profile, is a carer administered systematic checklist that makes the detection of common ADRs easier and provides staff and nurses with information to link signs and symptoms on the checklist to prescription medicines. This multi-disciplinary approach allows home care staff and nurses to link in with prescribers such as doctors and pharmacists, to provide them with personalised patient information and evidence so that prescribers are able to respond quickly to identified problems and adjust prescribing.

(Photo by RF._.studio on Pexels.com)

Paper co-author, Professor Sue Jordan said: “The profile identifies and documents patients’ signs and symptoms of adverse drug reactions and better monitoring allows professionals to respond with agility. While we realise that the implementation of the adverse drug reactions monitoring system will require changes to the regulatory regime at inspectorate level, it will make for better inter-professional cooperation. Providing carers, nurses and pharmacists with a structured system to monitor patients would democratise relevant medical knowledge and also help address ageism and the socio-economic health divide.”

(Lead Image: Swansea University)


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Health

Swansea scientists develop new method to detect viruses in a pinprick

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Scientists at Swansea University, Biovici Ltd and the National Physical Laboratory have developed a method to detect viruses in very small volumes.

The work, published in Advanced NanoBiomed Research, follows a successful Innovate UK project developing graphene for use in biosensors – devices that can detect tiny levels of disease markers.

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For many parts of the world that do not have access to high-tech labs found in hospitals, detecting viruses such as hepatitis C (HCV) – could save millions of preventable deaths worldwide. In addition, biosensors such as this could be used at the point-of-care – opening effective healthcare in difficult-to-reach settings.

What makes the detection of viruses in such small volumes possible is the use of a material called graphene. Graphene is extremely thin – only one atom thick – making it very sensitive to anything that attaches to it.

By carefully controlling its surface, scientists at Swansea University were able to make the surface of graphene sensitive to the HCV virus. These measurements were done with graphene specialists at the National Physical Laboratory.

In the future, it is hoped that multiple biosensors can be developed onto a single chip – this could be used to detect different types of dangerous viruses or disease markers from a single measurement.  

Ffion Walters, Innovation Technologist at Swansea University’s Healthcare Technology Centre said: “Highly sensitive and simplistic sensors have never been more in demand with regards point-of-care applications. 

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“This collaborative project has allowed us to realise proof-of-concept real-time sensors for HCV,  which could be especially beneficial in resource-limited settings or for difficult-to-reach populations.”

Professor Owen Guy, Head of Chemistry at Swansea University, said: “At Swansea University, we have now developed graphene-based biosensors for both Hepatitis B and C. This is a major step forward to a future single point of care test”

Dr Olga Kazakova, NPL Fellow Quantum Materials & Sensors added: “NPL was delighted to be part of this multidisciplinary team. Participation in this project allowed us to further develop our metrological validation facilities and apply them to the characterisation of graphene biosensors and aid in solving an important challenge in the health sector.”

Lead image: Graphene device chip attached to an electrical connector, with two 5 μL HCVcAg samples (one applied on each graphene resistor). (Image: Swansea University)

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Public health professor becomes Fellow of Academy of Medical Sciences

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A Swansea University public health expert has been honoured by the prestigious Academy of Medical Sciences

Professor Ronan Lyons, Clinical Professor of Public Health at Swansea University Medical School and one of the two Directors at Population Data Science, is one of 60 outstanding biomedical and health scientists admitted to the Academy’s influential Fellowship.

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The new Fellows have all been recognised for their remarkable contributions to biomedical and health science and their ability to generate new knowledge and improve the health of people everywhere.

Professor Lyons’s research focuses on the use of health information to support the targeting and evaluation of health and non-health service interventions to improve prevention, care and rehabilitation.

During the pandemic, his team have used insights from the rich health data in SAIL Databank to support policy decisions to protect the public, including providing intelligence to the Welsh Government’s Technical Advisory Group and subsequently feeding into the UK’s SAGE (Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies).

Professor Lyons said: “I am delighted and honoured to be selected as a Fellow by the Academy of Medical Sciences.

“This undoubtedly reflects the widespread appreciation of the contribution research conducted using the SAIL Databank make to individuals and society. 

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“It is also recognition of the fantastic team science approach in Population Data Science at Swansea University and our dedication to the advancement of health research through our many collaborations across the UK and around the world.”

The Academy of Medical Sciences is the independent body in the UK representing the diversity of medical science. Selected from 366 candidates from across the UK, the 60 scientists chosen marks the highest number of new Fellows ever elected.

Academy President Professor Dame Anne Johnson said: “It gives me great pleasure to welcome these 60 experts to the Fellowship to help to address the major health challenges facing society.

“The diversity of biomedical and health expertise within our Fellowship is a formidable asset that in the past year has informed our work on critical issues such as tackling the Covid19 pandemic, understanding the health impacts of climate change, addressing health inequalities, and making the case for funding science. The new Fellows of 2022 will be critical to helping us deliver our ambitious 10-year strategy that we will launch later this year.”

The new Fellows will be formally admitted to the Academy next month.

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(Lead image: Swansea University)

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Health

New study suggests four in 10 in need of social care in Wales did not access services during the pandemic

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As many as four in 10 people in Wales who may have needed social care did not access its services during the Covid-19 pandemic, according to a new report.

Commissioned by Senedd Cymru (Welsh Parliament) and led by Dr Simon Williams of Swansea University, the study explored public attitudes and experiences of social care in Wales two years on from the start of the pandemic.

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The study, which involved a survey of 2,569 respondents in Wales and a series of focus groups, found that the Covid-19 pandemic hit social care hard, exacerbating the social care crisis, and intensifying pressure on the workforce.

The study’s key findings reveal that four in 10 people who felt that they or someone in their household or close family needed social care during the past two years did not receive or make use of it.

The pandemic was cited as a major reason why many of those who may have needed social care didn’t access it – either out of fear of contracting Covid or because they didn’t want to burden social care services that were experiencing significant pressures.

Satisfaction with social care was variable, according to the study, with approximately one-third either very or quite dissatisfied, and a little over half either very or quite satisfied with social care services for themselves or a household or close family member.

Among those who felt that they or someone in their household didn’t receive or make use of social care despite needing it, the most common reasons people gave included: lack of availability or staff shortages (22%), not fitting eligibility criteria (17%), feeling too proud to access care (15%) and the application process being too complicated (10%).

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Most of the respondents (86%) felt that the social care system in Wales needs reform, and 94% of said that it should be a priority for the UK and Welsh Governments.

In the focus groups, participants argued that there is a need for consistency in the social care received, more personalised care, better integration between health and social care, and a need for more investment in social care. Some felt that reform should see the integration of social care into the NHS, while others argued for the establishment of a separate national care service.

Dr Williams said: “It is concerning that approximately four in 10 of those feeling in need of social care did not receive or make use of social care services. Social care policymakers and providers should seek to understand and address what people feel are the main barriers to accessing or using social care, including increasing provision for those who need it, encouraging and enabling those who feel they need social care to apply, consider broadening the eligibility criteria where appropriate, and simplifying the application process.

“As with healthcare services, another challenge for social care services may be the need to address a potential backlog in those needing care, who were either unable to access services due to restrictions or staff shortages, or did not want to apply because they were concerned about infection risk or did not want to bother services.”

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