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Vaccine passports, conspiracy theories and COVID echo chambers influence vaccine delay find Swansea researchers

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A study by researchers from Swansea University shows that conspiracy theories, a distrust in in government and Covid echo chambers are among the factors leading to vaccine delay.  

This is a distinct form of vaccine hesitancy where people assume they might get vaccinated at some point but are putting it off until they have more information or until they need to, for example to be able to travel.

The study also finds that vaccine passports were one of the factors which might encourage some of those delaying the decision of whether or when to get vaccinated.

It has been published on MedRxiv, a site used by researchers to share new findings on timely issues before they have been peer-reviewed for publication in a journal.

The research revealed

  • Overall, positive sentiment towards vaccines was high. However, the study found that a substantial proportion (41%) of those taking part, including younger adults, were still unsure about vaccines and might be delaying their decision to get vaccinated. Vaccine delay could be costly for public health;
  • Barriers to vaccine uptake included: a preference for “natural immunity”; concerns over possible side effects; a distrust in government; a perceived lack of information over efficacy and safety of vaccines; the circulation of conspiracy theories, particularly amongst Black and Asian Minority Ethnic communities; and the existence of so-called Covid echo chambers – where people with similar views around Covid vaccines tend not to discuss the issue(s) with those who have views different to their own;
  • Vaccine passports were perceived by many to be likely if not inevitable. For some who those who were hesitant to get vaccinated, vaccine passports were perceived to be a reason why they would “need to” get vaccinated in the future. However, vaccine passports were controversial, with some seeing them as a “necessary evil” and others seeing them as “a human rights problem”; and,
  • Earlier concerns over people being complacent or rule-breaking after having a vaccine may have been unwarranted. Among those who had already had one or two doses of the vaccine, few reported a change in health behaviours such as mask wearing and social distancing.
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New research shows conspiracy theories, a distrust in in government and COVID echo chambers are among the factors leading to vaccine delay. (Image: Alena Shekhovtcova / Pexels.com)

The Public views of the Covid-19 pandemic study is being led by Dr Simon Williams and Dr Kimberly Dienes of Swansea University, in collaboration with Professor Christopher Armitage of the University of Manchester and Dr Tova Tampe, an independent consultant at the World Health Organization (WHO).

The researchers have been conducting online focus groups and surveys with people from across the UK throughout the COVID-19 pandemic to explore their views and experiences.

Dr Williams said: “The speed and extent of vaccine uptake in the UK has been remarkable. However, although we found that many people, including younger adults, feel positive towards getting a vaccine, a significant proportion are still unsure and feel like they need more time to decide.

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“And with concern over the so-called Indian variant, it’s not just a question of how many people will ultimately end up getting vaccinated, but also how quickly or not they will decide.”

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Dr Dienes added: “By their own admission, some were delaying the decision to get a vaccine until it was a ‘necessity’. For these, vaccine passports were seen as something that would inevitably influence their decision. Some called vaccine passports a ‘necessary evil’ while others saw them as an indication that an activity might be safe.

“Policymakers should recognise people’s concerns and desire to delay as valid, and work on ways to understand delay and reduce it through reassurance and communication.”

Dr Williams said: “There has been a lot of focus on the anti-vax movement, although this is likely a very small number of the total population. More important for public health is the larger number of people who are delaying because they want to wait and see what happens with vaccines.

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“However, the spread of new variants arguably means that we will likely need a larger proportion of the population to be vaccinated, and more quickly. And so, vaccine delay could be quite costly.”

(Lead image: cottonbro / Pexels.com)


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Wales extends COVID-19 testing throughout July

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Welsh Health Minister, Eluned Morgan has confirmed that access to free LFD tests will be extended in Wales until July 31st 2022.

Tests will be available to the public that are showing symptoms of coronavirus (high temperature a new, continuous cough, a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste), alongside free access for people visiting someone eligible for new COVID-19 treatments.

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The announcement comes following a rise in cases, with The Office for National Statistics recent survey reporting an increase in cases across the UK. An estimated 1 in 45 people in Wales currently have COVID-19.

The emergence of the BA.4 and BA.5 sub-variants are also contributing to this increase as they become more dominant across the UK.

The health minister has also announced the following testing will continue to be in place –

  • LFD and PCR testing for those eligible for COVID-19 treatments.
  • PCR testing for COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses for symptomatic care home residents and prisoners.
  • PCR and LFD testing under the patient testing framework and when clinically advised including pre-operative hospital patients and care home residents returning from inpatient hospital stays
  • LFD testing for symptomatic health and social care staff.
  • Twice weekly LFD tests for asymptomatic testing for health and social care staff
  • Those visiting people in care homes should continue to test using tests provided by the care home they are visiting.

Self-isolation payments of £500 will end on 30th June 2022, whilst the COVID-19 Statutory Sick Pay Enhancement scheme will be extended until 31st August 2022 to support social care staff to stay away from work due to testing positive.

Minister for Health and Social Services, Eluned Morgan, said: “Testing has been an effective tool in breaking the chain of transmission and with an increase in cases its vital that we keep testing in place to protect the most vulnerable in our society. As we have seen before, Covid can quickly change, I am announcing this extension in response to the changing picture and new variants of concern.

“I would also ask people to take protective measures to protect the more vulnerable in the community, wear masks in health and care settings, stay at home if you test positive, and take up the offer for the vaccine. We know that the vaccine is the best way to protect yourself, I would urge those eligible to have their spring booster if they have not already had it, the booster is available until June 30.

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“Covid has not gone away, whilst we are learning to live safely with it, we will continue to monitor the situation and as we have done for the last two years, we will work together to Keep Wales Safe.”

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Coronavirus regulations to end in Wales

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First Minister Mark Drakeford today said Wales can look forward to a brighter future, as the last remaining coronavirus protections in law come to an end.

After more than two years of living with coronavirus regulations, these will expire on Monday May 30 when the requirement to wear a face covering in health and care settings ends.

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But the Welsh Government will continue to recommend people take simple steps to protect their health – including wearing face coverings in health and care settings – as Wales moves beyond the emergency response to the pandemic.

First Minister Mark Drakeford said: “The pandemic has had a profound impact on all our lives – everyone has made sacrifices and changes over the last two years. But it is thanks to all your efforts that we can move beyond the emergency response while still living safely with this virus.

“I want to thank everyone for all you have done to protect yourselves and your loved ones. You have followed the rules and you have kept Wales safe.

“This three-week review of the coronavirus regulations is a significant milestone – we are completing our careful and gradual transition away from legal protections and away from the emergency response to the pandemic.”

The public health situation is continuing to improve in Wales – results from recent ONS Coronavirus Infection Surveys show the number of people with Covid-19 is falling.

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But in the past week, the four UK chief medical officers have warned about the risk from new variants – BA.4 and BA.5.

The First Minister said Wales will remain alert to these and is ready to scale up testing and vaccination arrangements once again if the public health situation changes.

He added: “We remain alert to the threat of new and emerging variants, and we will be ready to respond if we see a rapid spread of the virus, causing widespread harm.

“Continuing to take simple steps, including staying up to date with vaccinations; self-isolating if you have Covid-19 symptoms and maintaining good hand hygiene, will be important in helping us all to enjoy a safer and brighter future together.”

From Monday 30 May, the legal requirement to wear a face covering in health and care settings will end. This follows the outcome of the three-weekly review of coronavirus regulations and completes a gradual, phased easing of legal restrictions since January.

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Over the last three weeks the public health situation has continued to improve, with the latest results from the ONS Coronavirus Infection Survey showing the percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus in Wales is falling.

The number of Covid-19 related patients has also fallen to less than 700 and is at its lowest level since 28 December 2021, although the NHS remains under pressure from a combination of emergency and pandemic pressures with a significant number of staff absences.

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New COVID vaccination centre opens at Aberavon Shopping Centre

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A new COVID vaccination centre for Port Talbot is opening at Aberavon Shopping Centre.

Situated next door to B&M, near the river bridge entrance, Swansea Bay Health Board say it will provide vaccinations to adults and children alike.

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The first clinic will be held at the Local Vaccination Centre (LVC) on Thursday, May 26th. Slots will be available by appointment only for the time being.

The health board are asking people not to telephone the shopping centre if they want to make an appointment or if they have a general query. The health board’s booking centre can be contacted on 01792 200492 or 01639 862323.

The opening comes as the health board winds down its vaccination operation at the Bay Field Hospital near Amazon, off Fabian Way, which has been open since the first Covid vaccine was rolled out to health and social care staff in December 2020.

The final Covid vaccination clinic will be held at the Bay Mass Vaccination Centre on Wednesday, June 1st.

Blood tests will continue on that site for the time being.

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Covid vaccination clinics will also continue to be scheduled at Canolfan Gorseinon Centre, in the health board’s container in the car park of Morrisons supermarket on Baglan Industrial Park and on the Immbulance mobile vaccination clinic, which stops at various venues across the Swansea Bay area.

Interim Head of Transformation, James Ruggiero, said the move to the shopping centre signals a wider change in the Covid vaccination programme.

“The Bay has been absolutely brilliant for us but thankfully, we no longer need a permanent venue of that size.

“While no one can predict exactly what will happen in the future, we do know that some people, particularly those who are vulnerable, will need Covid boosters to help maintain a level of protection against the coronavirus, which is still out there.

“This new venue is perfect for that and a bonus is that being smaller and less intimidating, it can also be used to host clinics for children aged five to 11.”

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Vaccination staff Owain Williams, Samantha Minards, Rebecca Maus, Mathew Davies and Geraint Hammond, inside the new vaccination centre at Aberafan Shopping Centre (Image: Swansea Bay NHS)

Mr Ruggiero added: “Our teams have worked hard to set up this new convenient unit and to make it as comfortable and efficient as possible.

“We hope the public welcome it and enjoy popping to the other shops to pick up a bargain once they’ve come in for their vaccination.”

The Aberafan Shopping Centre LVC will be open between 9.30am and 4.30pm. Vaccinations are on an appointment-only basis for now.

The first vaccinations will be for the spring booster which, in line with JCVI guidance, is being given to those aged 75 and over, older care home residents and those aged 12 and over who are immunosuppressed.

The health board will shortly be announcing clinic dates for those aged five to 11 in June.

A Covid booster programme is due to run in the autumn, with interim JCVI advice saying that Residents in a care home for older adults and staff working in care homes for older adults; Frontline health and social care workers; All those 65 years of age and over; and adults aged 16 to 65 years in a clinical risk group should each receive one dose.

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(Lead image: Swansea Bay NHS)

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